Attosecond Science Tutorials
Attoseconds and Angstroms
The attosecond time scale is the natural time scale of electrons. Attosecond photon pulses arise because of an inter-conversion between attosecond electrons and attosecond photon pulses.
The natural space scale of the electron is the Angstroms --- 1/10,000,000,000 of a meter (or yard). Looking carefully at the interference pattern between the two parts of the electron wave you can imagine that it is possible to determine the size of the electron.
The figure is for a nitrogen atom. If the attosecond pulse is generated from Nitrogen molecule, we still see the electron, but now the electron moves between the two atoms in a more complex orbit (called an orbital). Imagine the interference.
Here is a measured image of the electron (a) compared to a calculated image (b). The measured image is determined from the spectrum of the attosecond pulses.
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Creating Attosecond Pulses -- Made Simple
Producing Attosecond Pulses -- A Wave Perspective
Huge Energy Produces Attosecond Pulses
Visualising an Attosecond
Time and the Organization of the Universe